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1.带to不定式用法之一:带to不定式有逻辑宾语在前时,to后动词用及物动词;不及物时需跟介词。The work is too hard for me to do. (work做及物动词do的逻辑宾语)

I have nothing to say. (nothing做及物动词say的逻辑宾语)

I have a letter to write. (letter是及物动词write的逻辑宾语) 而以下情况有介词:

I have a pen to write a letter with. ( 用钢笔写信,所以要有“用”字,故加with。)

The zoo is not a good place for animals to live in。

(“住在动物园里”,zoo是live in的逻辑宾语,故不及物动词live加介词in. )

Tom has no friends to talk to. (friends 是talk to的逻辑宾语,to不可少。)

He runs too fast for us to catch up with. (he是catch up with的逻辑宾语,带with。) There are no seats to sit on. (坐在座位上,故sit后要加on。)

2.(a) little / (a) few: 1few,little“几乎没有;少”否定词。few加可数名词复数, little加不可数名词。 There is little water in the bottle, is there? (前否定,后肯定)

Tom is so shy that he has few friends。

2a few“一些”肯定词,加可数名词复数; a little“一些;一点”也是肯定词,加不可数名词。 Tom is not an Englishman , but he knows a little English。

3另外,在too, very, so等词后用few, little; 在only, just, still等词后用a few, a little. 而quite a few / a little 都译为“很多”,分别相当于many和much。

(注:有时a little…。。并不是固定短语。如: a little sheep译为“一只小羊”)

3.及物动词+副词:put on (穿上) / put off (推迟) / put away (把…整理好) / put up (举起,搭起,挂起,张贴) / put down (放下) / put out(扑灭); break down(损坏,倒塌);

turn on(打开) / turn off (关闭) / turn up (调大) / turn down(关小); get back(取回);

use up(用光); cut up(切碎) eat up(吃光) sell out(卖完) cheer up(振作)

give away(赠送) / give out(发放) / give up(放弃) / give back(归还); pick up(捡起、拿起)

try out(验证) / try on(试穿); ring up/ call up(打电话); clean up / out (打扫干净);

set up(成立); think up(想出;想起); hand in (上交) / hand out(分发;散发);

fix up(修理); work out(算出) dress up(打扮); help out(帮人解决);

keep off / keep out(阻止;挡住); take off(脱下) / take away(拿走) / take out(拿出);

look up(查找) / look over(仔细查看); throw away / off (抛弃) wake up(叫醒); write down(写下); let down(使沮丧); make up(编造、组成); set off(激起、触发)


4.as……as用法:中间加形容词和副词原级。1和…一样… His room is as big as mine。

He runs as fast as I do / me / I. You should keep the room as clean as your brother’s。

2as…as possible / sb can “尽可能…” We went there as soon as possible。

Listen to the teacher as carefully as you can. He went there as quickly as he could。

3有些短语有几个意思:as soon as 和…一样快;一…就…; as much as和…一样多;多达; as long as和…一样长;长达;只要; as well as和…一样好;和…一样;

as far as远达;就…来说 (as…as…在否定句中也可说so…as…。)

也可表示倍数: This room is twice as big as that one. 这个房间是那个房间的两倍大。

5.prefer用法:prefer sth to sth 或 prefer doing sth to doing sth。“比起…更喜欢…”

prefer to do sth rather than do sth宁愿…也不愿…

若单独一个prefer,和like 用法类似,后接 to do sth 或 doing sth “更喜欢做某事”

6. some-, any-, every-用法:1some-“某~,一些~”,用于肯定的陈述句中。

I have something to tell you. Maybe somebody has taken it。


Why not ask somebody to help you? Shall we give him something to eat?

What about some milk? Could you please lend me some chairs?

Will you buy me some books? May I give you some tea? Would you like some milk?

在一些”do some…”短语中, 即使是疑问句中, some也不变为any. 如:

Will you do some washing next Sunday? 这些短语有:

do some shopping / cleaning / cooking / sweeping / washing 等。

2any-, 在疑问句中仍译为“某~,一些~”Do you have anything to say?

Is anybody in the house? Have you seen it anywhere?

在if 引导的句中,常用any. 如:If you have any water, please give me some。

在肯定句和否定句中译为“任何~” You may put the box anywhere in the room。

He is taller than any other student in the class. We won’t have anything to eat now。


Is everybody here?-No,Tom and Lucy have asked for leave。

The glass was broken, and the water went everywhere。

7.动词时态和形式:八个时态:一般现在时、 现在进行时(am / is / are + v.ing)、

一般将来时(will / shall / be going to+动词原形)、 一般过去时、 过去进行时(was / were + v.ing)、 现在完成时(have / has + v. 过去分词)、 过去完成时(had + v. 过去分词)、过去将来时(would + v. 原形) 六个形式: 原形; 过去式(规则的加ed);

过去分词(规则的加ed); 第三人称单数(加s / es); 现在分词(v.ing); 带to不定式。

8.if / whether区别:if 如果(引导条件状语从句) / 是否(引导宾语从句)

Do you know if he will go to the post office? If he goes there, I will ask him to buy me some stamps. 两个if, 前者“是否”;后者“如果”,观察其后时态的不同。(各见语法1、2)

whether“无论”引导让步状语从句 / “是否”引导宾语从句(相当于if)

都译为“是否”时,whether可接or not, 也可接带to不定式。而if 则不可。

另外,if可接any-单词,常不接some-单词。 (见语法28.)

9.因为:because, 常是对why的回答,语气最强。位置:Because…, …或…, because…。

since, 表显然的或已知的理由Since it’s already late, I must go now。

for, 位置:…,for…。语气最弱。 I drove carefully, for it’s snowing。

as有时也指“因为”,用法基本无限制。As I am ill, I won’t go。

10.表推测:must, may, might, could, can, can’t


There is the door bell, it must be Tom. 门铃响了,一定是汤姆(来了)。

may / might“也许”一般用于肯定句, may比might可能性大。

She is coming to us. She might be our new teacher。

can / could“可能”could比can语气更委婉。但can多用于否定。

You could be right, but I don’t think you are。

The light in the office is off. The teacher can’t be there now。

11.so与such区别:so是副词,后跟形容词/副词,so tall / slowly / carefully / young…

such是形容词,后跟名词短语。such bad weather / good news /beautiful music…;

such a beautiful girl / an important lesson / a heavy stone / an interesting lesson…;

such kind boys / new desks / friendly people / amazing movies / clever children…;

若名词前形容词是many, much, few, little时,不用such, 而用so。

so many flowers / much rain / few friends / little water…

也常有“so / such …that…”句型,译为“如此…以致于…”。

12.so的另两个用法:1so + be / 情态动词 / 助动词 + 主语,“…也”

上下文所指不是同一个人或物。 The twins are working, so am I。

I will leave tonight, and so will Peter. If you go there, so will I . (最后一句参见语法2)

又如:A: I woke up late this morning. B: So did I。

2so + 主语 + be/情态动词 / 助动词,“的确…是”上下文所指是同一个人或物。

A: We have lunch at school. B: So you do。

又如:A: Bruce can work out the problem. B: So he can. (注意以上黑体字的照应)

13.neither / nor用法之一:neither / nor + be / 情态动词 / 助动词 + 主语

“…也不”上文是否定句。She didn’t get well, nor did her brother。

Tim isn’t going to do his work, neither is John。

又如:A: Jim hasn’t had breakfast. B: Neither have I. (注意以上黑体字的照应)

14.keep, make, get, have用法:

1keep + sb / sth doing sth “让…一直做…” I’m sorry for keeping you waiting so long. (区别:keep + doing sth “坚持做某事,一直做某事”)

2make + sb / sth do sth让…做某事(接动原) I’ll try to make you understand what I mean。

I feel sorry that I have made him wait for long。


I made him wait for long. →He was made to wait for long。

3get + sb / sth to do sth。让…做某事。He got Peter to buy him a pen。

4have + 宾语+ 动词原形 / ing / 过去分词

Have him do it, please。让他做它吧。(him 和 do 逻辑上形成主谓关系,do用原形。)

We had the machine working。我们让机器一直工作着。(让某物一直在进行着某事。)

We had the machine repaired。我们让人修理了那台机器(让机器被修理了,表被动。)

5也都可接形容词:keep safe / busy, keep the door closed / open,

make us happy, get the door closed, have everything ready. get her ears pierced。

15.used短语:used to + 动原,“过去常常” He used to smoke。

be used to 译为“被用于…”,后接动原。 It is used to cut things. (主语是物)

be used to 译为“习惯于…”,后接动词ing或名词 / 代词. (主语常是人)

如:He’s used to working late. We are used to the country life. Are you used to it?

be used for “被用于…”,后接名词或动词ing (主语也是物) 如:

English is used for business. Knives are used for cutting things。

16. through / past / across 区别: 都可作介词,“穿过”,前常有位移动词(以下黑体部分)。

He climbed through the window and saw what he could take away. (从窗户内部经过)

He went past me without saying any words. (从我旁边经过)

He swam across the river. (从河的表面经过)【through,内部; past,旁边; across,表面】

位移动词 + past 有时相当于动词pass; 位移动词 + across有时相当于动词cross。

17.the number of / a number of: 前者“…的数量”;后者“许多的”


The number of the trees is two thousand. (用单数谓语. 另注意trees前有限定词)

A number of trees have been cut down. (用复数谓语. 另注意trees前无限定词)


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