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金昌中考英语语法大全:定语从句

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2016-12-14

IV. 限制性和非限制性定语从句

1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如:

This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。例如:

Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理?史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。例如:

He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

V. 介词+关系词

1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。

2)that前不能有介词。

3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。例如:

This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。

This is the house where I lived two years ago.

Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?

Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

VI. as, which 非限定性定语从句

由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。例如:

As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。

The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类很重要。

典型例题

1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.

A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he

答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后

句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。

2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.

A. what B. which C. that D. it

答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。

3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..

A. that B. which  C. as  D. it

答案B. as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:

(1)as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。

(2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。

as 的用法

例1. the same…as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。例如:

I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 我碰到了跟他一样的麻烦。

例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。例如:

As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。

As is known, smoking is harmful to one's health.

As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

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